Tehran is the capital city of Iran. A bustling metropolis of 14 million people,
it is situated at the foot of the towering Alborz mountain rang. Tehran is a
cosmopolitan city, with great museums, parks, restaurants, warm friendly
people. It deserves at least a few days of your Iranian itinerary.
between 1 ,200 and 1 ,700 meters. Mehrabad Airport to the west of city.
Railway: European link through Tabriz and Istanbul , internal lines to Mashhad
, Yazd and Khoramshahr. Regular coach services in all directions.
Capital and largest city
of Iran and Tehran Province in an area of 600sq. km. since 200 years , is
located in the northern part of the country. Tehran is Iran's administrative ,
economic , and cultural center as well as the major industrial and
transportation center of the region. The city sits on the slopes of the Alborz
Mountains at an elevation of about 12 10 m. , on the northwestern fringes of
the Dashte-e Kavir , a desert in central Iran. Most of the grow1h is channeled
along an east-west axis and toward the south , to the north , the city is
constrained by the steep Alborz Mountains. Most commercial and government
buildings are located in the center of the city. Residential structures
predominate elsewhere. The climate has marked seasonal contrasts , with short
springs and autumns separating cold winters and hot , dry summers.
Tehran is the latest and the largest capital city in the 7000-year history of
Persia , as Iran was called by many people in the West before 1935. The
original settlement of Tehran , north of the ancient city of Rey , may have
been founded as early as the 4th century. By the early 13th century it was a
small village. In 1221 invading Mongols led by Chengis Khan destroyed Rey , but
Tehran survived and grew slowly in the following centuries. During the reign of
the Safavid Shah Tahmasp (1524-1576) a wall and four watchtowers were built
around the city , and by the early 17th century Tehran had about 3000 houses.
In the 1720s Afghan invaders attacked Tehran. The town defeated the initial
Afghan force but fell to the main Afghan army and suffered tremendously under
their occupation from 1723 to 1729. Nadir Shah freed Tehran in 1729. In 1788
Aqa Mohammad Khan , founder of the Qajar dynasty , made Tehran his capital ,
inaugurating the modern history of Tehran. At this time Tehran's population was
estimated to be 15 ,000. Under the Qajar dynasty (1786-1925) , Tehran grew in
population and size , and new administrative buildings , palaces , mosques ,
and garrisons were constructed.
Mount Damavand , the highest mountain in Iran ,
has for centuries attracted mountaineers , nomads and legends to its
snow-covered slopes. The epic hero Fereidun wrestled and defeated the evil
giant Zahakis , chaining him to a cave on the mountain peak. Villagers living
near the base of the volcano still remark that Zahakis is straining to be free
at the first signs of smoke or rumblings often heard deep within the mountain.
On a clear day , the 18 ,600-foot cone is visible from Tehran , fifty miles
Takht-e Marmar Edifice
The Takht-e Marmar (Marble Throne) structure
was built by Karim Khan Zand between the years 1747 and 1751 A.H. that is in
the first three years of his region. Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar (1779-96 A.D.)
decided to have it perfected. In (1791 A.D.) , following the order of this
Qajar king , a great deal of building materials , pieces of painting and
decorations , belonging to the Royal Palace of Karim Khan , were removed from
Shiraz to Tehran to be used in the Takht-e Mannar edifice. Upon the orders of
Fath Ali Shah Qajar , in (1806 A.D.) a big marble throne was made which is now
to be found in the center of the main iwan of the palace. The actual name of
the Marble Throne is " Takht-e Solaimaniyeh". All around the iwan ,
there remain lots of paintings and decorations belonging to the Qajar period.
After Fath All Shah's death , the other Qajar kings followed the example of
their ancestors in perfecting the decorations and adorning the buildings of the
During the reign of the Safavid Shah Abbas 1 , a vast garden called Chahar Bagh
(Four Gardens) , a governmental residence and a Chenarestan , (a grove of plane
trees) , were created on the present site of the Golestan Palace and its
surroundings. Then , Karim Khan Zand (17491779 A.D. ) ordered the construction
of a citadel , a rampart and a number of towers in the same area. In the Qajar
period , some royal buildings were gradually erected within the citadel; for
instance , in 1813 which coincided with the fifth year of the reign of Fath Ali
Shah , the eastern part of the royal garden was extended and some other palaces
were built around the garden , called the Golestan Garden.
Archaeological Museum One of the most exciting discoveries in recent Iranian
archaeology was this majestic statue of Darius the Great found December , 1972
, inside the palace gatehouse at Shush (Susa). It is the first known
large-scale statue in the round from Iran of the Achaemenian period , and shows
the king dressed in the Persian manner similar to the king dressed in the
Persian manner similar to the relieves at Persepolis. Inscriptions in Egyptian
hieroglyphics , Old Persian , Elamite and Acadians identify the statue as being
Darius 1 , and state that it was made in Egypt. The head is missing , and it
remains uncertain whether the king wore an Egyptian or a Persian crown.
Emareh Palace , (19th century) , Tehran
Darius the Great ruled from 522 to 486 B.C. , and built a canal from the Nile
River to the Red Sea along which this statue may have been transported on its
way to Shush. Linguistic and stylistic peculiarities of the statue suggest a
date for its carving during the latter part of the reign of Darius , about 490